HOWTO: Configure nginx for Debian / Ubuntu

**UPDATE: **I'm reworking my config blending in the security ideas found on []( they're really thought things through on this, this should make for a very secure environment.

I’m always trying new software, and with the webserver I’ve moved from Apache 1.3 to 2.0 to 2.2, and then later I moved everything over to Lighttpd, which I’ve liked, save for some memory issues that popped up.  Now, enter a web server named nginx (engine x), written by a Russian hacker. It’s already proved it’s meddle by running some of the largest Russian sites for years now.  It has the speed of Lighttpd, but with none of that memory weirdness, plus it uses a fraction of the CPU, so scaling should be smooth for highly visited sites.  It also does cool things like load balancing, reverse proxy, IMAP and POP proxy, etc, so I can see it being used in a variety of ways on a network.  It took me some time to understand how to configure it, which was a case of me just making it harder than it really is, so I wanted to post it here.  Look for updates as we go along, but this is currently backing a Production site I manage.

user                    www-data www-data;
worker_processes            5;
pid                     /var/run/;
events {
worker_connections 1024;
http {
include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
default_type            application/octet-stream;
log_format main         '$remote_addr $host $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
'$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" "$http_user_agent" '
'"$request_time" "$gzip_ratio"';
access_log          /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
error_log           /var/log/nginx/error.log;
sendfile            on;
tcp_nopush              on;
tcp_nodelay             off;
keepalive_timeout       65;
gzip                on;
gzip_http_version       1.1;
gzip_vary           on;
gzip_comp_level         6;
gzip_buffers            16 8k;
#gzip_proxied           expired no-cache no-store private auth;
gzip_proxied            any;
gzip_min_length         1000;
gzip_types          text/plain text/html text/css application/json application/x-javascript
text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;
server {
listen          80;
client_max_body_size    50M;
root            /var/www;
index           index.html index.php;
access_log          /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;
error_page          500 502 503 504  /500.html;
location = /500.html {
root        /var/www;
location ~* ^.+.(jpg|jpeg|gif)$ {
root        /var/www;
expires         30d;
location ~ \.php$ {
include /etc/nginx/fastcgi_params;
fastcgi_index index.php;
fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME /var/www$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param QUERY_STRING $query_string;
fastcgi_param REQUEST_METHOD $request_method;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_TYPE $content_type;
fastcgi_param CONTENT_LENGTH $content_length;